A Theme For The Year

According to statistics only 8 percent of people actually keep their New Year’s resolutions. In ancient times Babylonians made promises to their gods at the start of each year that they would return borrowed objects and pay their debts. The Romans began each year by making promises to the god Janus for whom the month of January is named.

It is estimated that around a half of all New Year’s resolutions will be about staying fit and healthy. For others it is about relationships with family and friends or money.

At this time of year my wife and I choose to set a joint theme for the year ahead. In a previous year we declared that we were going visit as many seaside locations as possible. This turned out to be a most enjoyable year with numerous coastal visits,  both home and abroad. This year the theme is ‘simplicity’, allowing us to reflect on the many ways in which we needlessly over-complicate our lives.

Simplicity in the dictionary directs us to the words clarity, coherence and directness. Each of these reminds us that the best way from a to b is a straight line. Whilst there are clearly times where the meandering road has benefits, I am also mindful of the great strength in clarity of purpose. The great traveller will set out on the road equipped  with a clear route plan, but will also make allowance for the unexpected trips and falls he may encounter en-route.

What will you focus on this year? Who will you share it with?

Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction

According to Wikipedia, symphysis pubis dysfunction (SPD) is a condition found in 1 in 300 pregnancies (although some estimates are higher). It is characterised by pain and discomfort in the front of the pelvis. Movement such as sitting or walking may be difficult and sleep may be affected. The pubic symphysis is the joint where left and right pelvic bones join. This is prone to strain during the heavy loading of pregnancy and childbirth. It has been suggested that the hormones of pregnancy may cause this joint to widen.

Symphysis Pubis Dysfunction In Pregnancy

Pelvic support belts and prescribed medication are the most common treatments for SPD, which usually spontaneously resolves after childbirth. Specialist physiotherapy may also be of benefit. Sufferers are advised to be careful of heavy lifting, avoid stepping over things and being careful of twisting movements of the body.

Acupuncture And SPD

I have treated this condition on numerous occasions and found that the pain usually resolves very quickly with acupuncture. Needles are carefully inserted according to where the pain is situated, most often along the top of the pubic bone. I acknowledge that such treatment requires complete confidence in the acupuncturist, but believe me the results are worthwhile.

Naturally care must be taken with any treatment in pregnancy, but if you are considering acupuncture for your SPD you should seek the advice of a fully trained acupuncturist, such as a member of The British Acupuncture Council.

 

www.acupuncturepaincentre.co.uk

Acupuncture Review Finds Evidence Of Effect

Acupuncture Review Finds Evidence Of Effect

Acupuncture Review Finds Evidence Of Effect

What Is Acupuncture Good For?

I am often asked which conditions acupuncture is good for. A recent review commissioned by the Australian Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine Association, provides an up to date evidence based guide to the effectiveness of acupuncture using scientifically rigorous methods.

In this study they considered 122 different health conditions and assigned them to one of four categories –

  • Positive effect (8)
  • Potential positive effect (38)
  • No evidence of effect (5)
  • Unclear/insufficient (71)

For the eight best supported conditions the evidence was consistently positive and acupuncture was recommended by the review authors. The eight conditions are:-

  • allergic rhinitis
  • back pain (chronic)
  • headache (tension type, chronic) and migraine
  • knee osteoarthritis
  • nausea and vomiting (either postoperative or due to chemotherapy)
  • post operative pain

The ‘potential positive effect’ list of 38 conditions includes neck, elbow, heel and shoulder pain, asthma, IBS, anxiety, depression, insomnia. It also includes primary and secondary stroke treatment. This is a condition which is the most common inpatient indication for acupuncture in Chinese hospitals.

Acupuncture Review Finds Evidence Of Effect

To be clear, no evidence of effect does not mean that acupuncture is ineffective, rather that there is currently no evidence of effect. These results reflect only what research has been done to date, they are not neccesarily a good indication of how someone would get on with acupuncture in normal practice. Interestingly however, the study authors do point out that :-

“it is no longer possible to say that the effectiveness of acupuncture is because of the placebo effect, or that it is useful only for musculoskeletal pain”.

Read the study

{Based on an article by Mark Bovey, Research Manager British Acupuncture Council}.

Topic: Acupuncture Review Finds Evidence Of Effect

Cupping As A Form Of Deep Tissue Massage

What Is It Good For?

What is cupping therapy and what is it good for? According to The British Acupuncture Council it is where ‘glass cups with a vacuum seal are placed on the skin to stimulate blood flow and clear stagnant qi’.

Cupping As A Form Of Deep Tissue MassageIn essence it can help with pain, inflammation, blood flow, relaxation and well-being. We could also consider cupping as a form of deep tissue massage.

Not New

The cups can be fashioned from bamboo, glass, plastic or earthenware. Cupping is by no means a new phenomenon. According to The Academy of Classical Oriental Sciences, ‘the earliest record of cupping is in the Bo Shu (an ancient book written on silk), which was discovered in a tomb of the Han Dynasty [206-220 AD]. Several other ancient texts mention Chinese medicine cupping. Several centuries later another famous medical classic, Su Sen Liang Fang, recorded an effective cure for chronic cough and the successful treatment of poisonous snake bites using cupping therapy’.

The modern cupping practitioner creates a partial vacuum using a lit taper, and the cup is placed on the skin. Sometimes a mechanical pump is used instead.

Cupping As A Form Of Deep Tissue MassageSo how does it work? I like to explain it to my patients in this way.

The partial vacuum created inside the cups causes the skin within to be pulled up and to redden (see illustration), indicating that additional blood is flowing into this area. The effect is, I explain similar to deep tissue massage, and can be helpful in treating muscle injury and stiffness. Where a larger muscle area requires treatment, a little massage oil applied to the skin first will allow the cup to be moved around the affected zone. This draws blood to the area and ‘walks’ it along the muscle.

In clinical practice I will use cupping most often in treating lower

Cupping As A Form Of Deep Tissue Massage

Cupping therapy – removing cups from a patient’s back

back pain, shoulder tension and in respiratory conditions such as the common cold (in which case it is applied on the upper back behind the lungs).

And finally here is a story to illustrate how cupping can be of benefit to athletes.

Marathon Treatment

Three days prior to running a marathon, a lady came to me with a muscle tear in her calf. She could barely walk. Could I achieve the impossible and help her to compete? After assessing her, I oiled up the affected area and attached a cup. Sliding this along the muscle allowed me to improve local blood flow until the area was visibly red. I advised her to rest totally for 24 hours before recommencing running. And the result? She was thrilled to complete the marathon (though not in her best time).

And finally, you may have seen photographs of athletes with painful-looking round ring marks on their torsos as a result of this treatment. ‘Not for me’ do I hear you say? I clearly advise patients that surface marking may occur for a few days after cupping, and that there should be no accompanying pain as a result. The marks will always disappear. If carried out by a competent, trained practitioner cupping therapy should be safe and effective.

Cupping. A form of deep tissue massage for treating pain, inflammation, improving blood flow, relaxation and well-being.

 

The Four Pillars of Health

What are the four pillars of health and how can they help us? Dr Rangan Chatterjee, 38, a GP from Oldham, and presenter of the BBC’s ‘Doctor In The House’ series was recently interviewed on the BBC Breakfast TV sofa. He asserted that most GPs these days are too busy to properly investigate complicated medical conditions, and it is therefore much easier to prescribe a pill. As part of his TV experiment Dr Chatterjee was allowed the luxury of spending time with patients in their home environment. As a consequence he was better able to get to the bottom of their medical issues, with some heartwarming outcomes.Four pillars of health

The four pillars he described are:-

  • Eating
  • Moving
  • Sleeping
  • Relaxing

It all sounds too easy, but what can we really learn from this approach? We are bombarded with health messages on a daily basis. Which ones should we really pay attention to? Let us take a look at each pillar in turn.

Nearly every day there is a new story in the media about healthy eating, which frankly can be really confusing. For me the key questions are about how often you eat freshly cooked food? Perhaps convenience wins over quality. Are do you allow adequate time to ‘rest and digest’ at mealtimes?

Have you ever had a conversation with your GP or practice nurse about taking more exercise? What was the outcome? Perhaps you started with good intentions but something more important came along.

four pillars of healthAnd on the topic of rest, the sleep council (http://www.sleepcouncil.org.uk/) notes that ‘nearly half of us are getting just six hours sleep or less a night. And an alarming four out of five people complain of disturbed or inadequate – or ‘toxic’ – sleep’. Go to their website for answers to these and other sleep related issues.

According to an online dictionary, the word relax means ‘to make or become less tense or anxious, to make (a rule or restriction) less strict’. Which rule could you relax? For all you schedulers out there, do you ever pencil in R & R breaks?

Here is a tip to make your four pillars work for you. I like to score each one from one to ten (where ten is perfect), and then write alongside each score one action I can take that will improve my score. Go on and have a go.

Martin Dean is an acupuncturist with over 23 years practice experience who practices in Nottingham. www.acupuncturepaincentre.co.uk

Why I Love My Job

Patients often pick up that I really enjoy my work. This got me to thinking what it is about the practice of Acupuncture that fires me up.

why I love my jobFirstly I have to say that this ancient approach to wellness didn’t come about overnight. Constant development of ideas by Chinese thinkers and doctors over more than two millenia has given us a wide-ranging system of medicine that rather thoughtfully tries to explain what it is to be human with all our faults. It is about real people’s lives. And such a system naturally requires constant study and updating by the modern practitioner. It also draws to the attention of the acupuncturist – the agent of change –  the need for self-development.

In a week where the daylight coming through the window has begun to take on a warmer hue and the very air sounds different, I am remined how we advanced human beings are still affected by the relentless march of the seasons. As it is without us, so it is within.

The ‘Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Medicine’, much of which predates the birth of Christ, describes in detail how we are affected by seasonal variations, and guides us in working hand-in-hand with nature. I am blessed to be able to pass on some of this wisdom as I understand it. Amongst my patients, farmers are the group most readily able to relate to this concept, with their close association with the land. All too often the solution to seasonal variations in how we feel inside is to turn up the heating, switch the electric lighting on and carry on with our normal routines. The enlightened soul might perhaps modify his/her behaviour according to the specific nature of each season.

So being an acupuncture practitioner isn’t neccesarily an easy job. And patients don’t always get better, or respond according to textbook theory. It would be surprising if they did! But many do and this is a regular reward that never grows dim. In truth attention to detail and careful use of the senses – sight, listening , touch and even smell – can go a long way towards allowing us to better understand each other.

The way of healing is so profound. It is deep as the oceans and boundless as the skies. How many truly know it?

If only we were perfect!

 

 

Introducing The Moxa Family

I have written about moxa before. Just to recap, and quoting from The British Acupuncture Council from their website,

Moxibustion is an essential part of Chinese medicine. This involves moxa, a substance prepared from mugwort leaves (Artemisia vulgaris), being placed either directly on the skin, on top of an acupuncture needle or held just above the skin, usually over specific acupuncture points or meridians. The herb is lit and as it smoulders slowly, the heat permeates the skin and affects the flow of “qi” (energy) and blood in the area being treated.

Most people find its gentle warming properties soothing and very effective. Whilst many people will recognise that acupuncturists use needles, it is an open secret that we also use moxa. It is perhaps helpful to think of moxa as a form of dry heat (as opposed to a hot water bottle, wheat bag or hot shower which is damp-heat). If your condition is improved by the application of heat then you may find moxa helpful. Your trusty acupuncturist will be able to advise.

What I wanted to do here is to highlight a number of different types of moxa available on the market, and illustrate the strengths of each. Just to be clear, they (nearly) all contain mugwort leaves. The difference is in the packaging.

Moxa Roll (Or Stick)

moxa stickThis type is available in a cigar form which makes it easy for home use. It can be held close to the skin to warm acupuncture points and specific areas. With sciatic pain it is often helpful to warm the affected nerve area creating a so-called ‘red-stripe’.

 

Moxa Cones

moxa conesIn this form the mugwort is rolled into cones and placed directly on the acupuncture point. It is lit and allowed to smoulder. It is of course removed before reaching the skin so that a pleasant feeling of warmth remains. This approach may be used in conjunction with needle insertion (after swabbing the skin of course). Watch a video.

Moxa On Needle

moxa on needleIn this application a small stub of moxa roll is threaded onto the end of a needle. When lit the heat is both radiated to the surrounding tissues and conducted down the metal of the needle to warm and soften underlying tissues. In the illustration the technique is being used to reduce inflammation and improve circulation in an injured knee.

Mini Moxa

mini moxaSo called ‘mini moxa’ devices are a very convenient and well made and safe device for home use. Patient can be instructed how to light and extinguish them safely, and how to use them.

 

 

 

So there it is. A range of convenient warming techniques for the modern acupuncture practice. Pick up the phone and call your local acupuncturist to discuss whether this treatment might be for you.

Warning: Moxa treatment should only be used under the guidance of a fully qualified traditional acupuncturist. It should not be carried out at home without supervision.

Call Martin Dean on 07969413158 for an appointment.

Neither Too Much Nor Too Little

Acupuncture texts devote a lot of space to the most appropriate arrangement of things in nature. According to the ancient Chinese principle of Yin and Yang, the world is composed of a delicate balance between polar opposites. Night and day are a prime example of this. We are not talking here about a fixed state of being, rather of a delicate interplay between these forces. We are effectively asking about what is normal.

Here are some questions an acupuncturist might ask you during a consultation session. Using your own experience of health, decide where do you think the balance should be struck in each case.Neither Too Much Nor Too Little

  • How often do you open your bowels?
  • Is there a foul odour (or perhaps none at all)?
  • How often do you sweat?
  • How well do you regulate your body temperature (taking into account the normal variations in climate)?
  • How many hours do you work in an average week?
  • How much exercise do you take?
  • How is your appetite ?
  • How are your energy levels?

The acupuncturists will also listen to you

  • Is your voice excessively loud or quiet?
  • If you have a cough, is it weak or explosively loud?

The practitioner will use his sense of touch.

  • What is your muscle tone like (flaccid, tight)?
  • What is your normal pulse rate (rapid, slow)?
  • Is your pulse strong, weak?

We could look for the following

  • Are you at your ideal weight?
  • Is your facial complexion pale, florid?
  • Are your physical movements slow or jerky
  • Is the body of your tongue moist, dry?

How did you fare? Are you perfectly balanced? At your first session with an acupuncturist, this type of questioning will give him an overall picture of your health. Treatment strategies will then be devised to help normalise these factors, and progress carefully monitored. For example if you have very chilly feet, treatment may consist of moxibustion (warming therapy) and a change to eating more warming foods. The key question might be ‘are you still wearing bedsocks in bed in June?’

What would you really like to change about your health? What could you do with more or less of?

The Acupuncture Pain Centre

Call for an appointment on 07969413158

Acupuncture Point Xue Hai An Unsung Hero

Acupuncture point Xue Hai (usually referred to as Spleen 10) is surely something of an unsung hero. It is amongst the most commonly used acupuncture points. Located on the inside of the leg just below the knee, its name translates as Sea of Blood. As you would expect it is used for treating disorders of the blood – its manyfold uses in this context include regulating menstruation, benefitting skin disorders (by moistening otherwise dry skin), and treating painful conditions distinguished by stagnant blood.

Acupuncture Point Xue Hai An Unsung Hero

To give an example, painful or irregular periods characterised by large clots can be eased with this point. In effect it promotes smooth circulation and discharge of  menstrual blood.

When combined with other points Xue Hai can also be used to treat blood deficiency (similar to anaemia). Typical symptoms of blood deficiency might include dizziness on standing up, ‘floaters’ in the vision, brittle nails and fatigue. So how does this work? In Chinese medicine, Xue Hai lies on the Spleen channel. This organ/system is responsible for the transformation of ingested food and drink (as a part of the digestive system) into blood. It is for this reason that the provision of acupuncture treatment would normally be accompanied by a proper discussion about diet.

And finally Xue Hai can help skin conditions where internal heat causes so-called ‘heat in the blood’, a characteristic of many skin conditions (for example painful, hot sores).

Is acupuncture Point Xue Hai An Unsung Hero? I will let you be the judge of this. Do you have a favourite acupuncture point?

www.acupuncturepaincentre.co.uk

Call: 07969413158 for an appointment.

 

 

 

Acupuncture Tales From The Treatment Couch

Here is the latest in the occasional series, Acupuncture Tales From The Treatment Couch. We discuss what will happen during that crucial first acupuncture session? What should I expect to happen on the treatment couch?

For what must be an unfamiliar situation for some, here is a typical scenario. It is based on a patient with tennis elbow, a painful condition of the elbow which can cause loss of grip, and an inability to perform everyd

Acupuncture Tales From The Treatment Couchay tasks such as opening drawers and pouring tea.

During the initial consultation with your acupuncturist you will be asked lots of questions about your problem. How did it start, when did it start, how does it feel, what does the condition prevent you from doing? It is also helpful for the practitioner to know what makes the condition better and what makes it worse. Did you try applying heat, is the soreness better or worse for rubbing? The answers to these will help to formulate the most effective acupuncture treatment strategy for you.

Following this you will be asked questions about your general health and lifestyle. What do you do for a living, do you open your bowels every day, are you a hot person? Such questions can help to pinpoint any underlying factors. For example if you tend towards poor circulation in your hands, you may be more prone to arm muscle strain in cold weather. In this case careful application of heat may be of great benefit as part of your treatment.

Phyical assessment of the injury may involve testing specific movements of your affected arm, and pressing for tender points. These tests are important in establishing a baseline before treatment starts.

So what about treatment itself? This may involve the insertion of hair-fine needles, the application of moxa herb to warm the tissues, massage and other acupuncture related techniques. Electrical stimulation may also be used to enhance the overall effect.

At stages during treatment, tender areas may be pressed again and any lessening of sensitivity noted. Range of movement may be similarly retested. Any improvement is an encouraging factor, though recovery is not always apparent straight away (especially during the first session or two).

And finally a word about expectations. I often remark that acupuncture treatment is like building a house – you lay the foundations first and then apply the bricks course by course. The casual bystander may not notice any sign of the housebuilding until the first few courses have been laid. Don’t be afraid to ask your practitioner how things are progressing.

Does Acupuncture Hurt And Other Questions

Our patients are naturally curious, especially about something as unfamiliar as traditional acupuncture. The questions they ask are straightforward, but the answers we offer them are often far from simple (after all we have spent much time and money studying the subject). A key part of my job as a practitioner is to explain unfamiliar concepts in familiar terms (it is something I constantly refine). An ancient Chinese text reminds us that

“so much of all illness begins in the mind, and the ability to persuade the patient to change the course of perception and feeling to aid in the healing process is a requirement of a good physician.”

Here are the top five questions patients tend to ask.

  1. Do the needles hurt?
Does Acupuncture Hurt And Other Questions

Five Common Questions About Acupuncture

Prospective patients often hesitate over this issue before picking up the phone, but like many things in life this is usually an overstated anxiety. When given by appropriately trained practitioners (such as British Acupuncture Council registered individuals) needle insertion is usually accompanied by rather mild sensations.

See earlier blog post on this topic

  1. Are you familiar with treating my condition?

This boils down to the question “how can I be sure of choosing the right practitioner”?

Ask about professional qualifications and status. The British Acupuncture Council is the UK’s largest regulatory body for practitioners of traditional acupuncture with around 3,000 members .

Ask how long they have been in practice. The more experienced the acupuncturist is, the more likely it will be that they have already treated someone with your condition. Ask them about their success rate. Perhaps this is a condition they specialise in. If not then have they treated something similar? Do they have an understanding of your symptoms? How they might be able to help? Can you communicate with this person?

The British Acupuncture Council have a series of fact sheets which provide accurate and un-biased information for a variety of conditions.

  1. How many sessions will I need?

This is often difficult to judge at the outset since everyone is different.  There are however some rules of thumb that can be helpful.

The first step is to book an initial consultation with your chosen practitioner so he can assess your circumstances. From this he will be able to suggest some pointers which will help you to build a roadmap to recovery.

For example you might expect to start feeling more refreshed after sleep, experience milder premenstrual mood swings or feel more energised. Each can indicate progress towards the main goal. Ask about expectations – does he expect you to make a full recovery? Does this feel right to you?

Initial treatment may be given weekly or twice weekly until symptoms begin to stabilize, then will be offered less frequently until the main treatment goal is reached.

  1. Why don’t you stick it where it hurts?

“I have come with a back problem, so why are you putting needles in my feet?”

See earlier blog post on this topic

  1. How did you get into acupuncture in the first place?

Men and women train in this field for various reasons. Some are so impressed by their experience of receiving acupuncture treatment that they have an ‘aha’ moment. Others are interested by the philosophy behind acupuncture and see it as a way of changing the world. Some have an overriding desire to help their fellow human beings. Often it is a combination of these.

In my case it was intense curiosity that drove me to read every book on the subject. If acupuncture was so good and had been around for hundreds of years, how come it wasn’t routinely available from my GP? I spent fifteen years working as an electronics engineer in the telecommunications industry, and this question was still with me when considering the option of career change.

Taking a three year degree (or degree equivalent) course is no easy option, but the rewards are tremendous! Nothing matches the thrill of helping someone to get their life back or to become pregnant after years of trying.

NICE Recommends Acupuncture

Here we take a look at why NICE recommends acupuncture, and summarise the evidence for its use.

NICE Recommends Acupuncture

NICE Recommends Acupuncture For Migraines, Back Pain and Tension-Type Headaches

Did you know that in the UK NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) recommends Acupuncture for the treatment of migraines, headaches and back pain on the NHS. Some GP practices offer integrated healthcare that includes acupuncture, but this is not yet commonplace. As an alternative, many people choose to go pay for acupuncture privately.

With over 3,000 members the British Acupuncture Council (BAcC) is the UK’s largest regulatory body for practitioners of traditional acupuncture. The BAcC is a founder member of the Professional Standards Accredited Voluntary Register (AVR) and maintains high standards of training, safe practice and professional conduct.

Many company health insurance schemes will cover treatment provided by British Acupuncture Council members – we suggest you read the small print.

The following is a brief review of available evidence for the treatment of three common conditions with acupuncture.

Back Pain

Back pain can affect anyone at any age and most people will suffer from it at some point in their lives. It is the UK’s leading cause of disability and one of the main reasons for work-related sickness absence.

According to the Acupuncture Research Resource Centre, ‘research has shown that acupuncture is significantly better than no treatment and at least as good as (if not better than) standard medical care for back pain. It appears to be particularly useful as an adjunct to conventional care, for patients with more severe symptoms and for those wishing to avoid analgesic drugs’.

NICE clinical guideline 88 makes recommendations for the early management of persistent non-specific low back pain (ie pain that has lasted for more than 6 weeks, but for less than 12 months). Their recommendation is for up to 10 sessions of acupuncture over 12 weeks.

In addition to needle therapy, it is common for traditional acupuncturists to use cupping, moxa therapy (i.e. warming), auriculotherapy, adjunctive electrostimulation, dietary advice, massage and exercises according to the patient’s individual characteristics.

Migraines

Migraine is a primary headache disorder manifesting as recurring attacks, usually lasting for 4 to 72 hours and involving pain of moderate to severe intensity (IHS 2004).

According to the Acupuncture Research Resource Centre, ‘research has shown that there have now been many controlled trials of acupuncture for migraine, with some large, high-quality ones in recent years. The results of the latest reviews are quite consistent: acupuncture is significantly better than no treatment/basic care for managing migraine, and appears to be at least as effective as prophylactic drug therapy, with few contraindications or unpleasant side effects’.

NICE Recommends Acupuncture

NICE Recommends Acupuncture For Migraines

According to the NICE clinical summary on migraines in adults, ‘evidence suggests that the addition of acupuncture to treatment of acute migraine attacks or to routine care is beneficial for at least 3 months, and that acupuncture is better than evidence-based prophylactic drug treatment’.

They recommend the use of acupuncture for up to 10 sessions over a course of 5 to 8 weeks as second-line prophylactic treatment. They also found that when 10 sessions are provided, acupuncture is more cost-effective to the NHS than no treatment.

Tension-Type Headaches

Tension-type headache is the term used for infrequent and frequent episodic, as well as chronic, tension-type headaches. They occur in up to around 80% of the UK adult population, and are more prevalent in women.

The Acupuncture Research Resource Centre states that ‘evidence from the most up-to-date and highest quality systematic review showed that there are clinically relevant benefits of adding acupuncture to routine care and also a statistical advantage of ‘true’ acupuncture over sham interventions’.

Although they go on to assert that current evidence is as yet insufficient to strongly support the use of acupuncture for treating tension-type headaches, NICE state that ‘because they found very little evidence to support the use of pharmacological prophylaxis, this evidence was sufficient to recommend its use’. Hence ‘a course of up to 10 sessions of acupuncture over 5–8 weeks is recommended.

Resources

The Acupuncture Pain Centre.co.uk

Acupuncture Research Resource Centre

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

British Acupuncture Council